Using references to Brazilian slums to brand luxury items as Brazilian.

I. Film

To get at the larger issues related to favelization, I first turn to the fictional film City of God (2002) and the documentary Waste Land (2010). I begin a discussion of favelization by discussing music videos, movies and documentaries because these types of cultural production has been most effective in molding, changing or reinforcing perceptions of the favela in Brazil and abroad. The overwhelming number of movies released since 1996 about Rio de Janeiro’s slums or the city’s history of crime, combined with their far-reaching international dissemination, means that images of the favela reached a large number of people, most of whom have never entered one. Furthermore, movies provide a context for the exploration of three themes recurrent in favelization: interpretation, transcendence, and domination. 

City of God  

Drama. 2002.

Location of Production: Brazil.  

Director: Fernando Meirelles (Brazil).

From top left to bottom right, 

1. Movie Trailer, "City of God", 2002. [Director's name???].

2. Movie Poster, "City of God", 2002. [Director's name???].

3-4. Still Images, "City of God" , 2002. [Director's name???]. 

Waste Land 

Documentary. 2010.

Location of Production: Brazil, UK.  

Directors: Lucy Walker, Karen Harley, João Jardim (Brazil). 

From top left to bottom right, 

1. Movie Trailer, "Waste Land", 2010. [Director's name???]. 

2. Movie Poster, "Waste Land", 2010. [Director's name???].

3-4. Still Image, "Waste Land", 2010. [Director's name???].

5. Website of Phillips (auction house), exhibiting that Marat (Sebastiao) Pictures of Garbage (2008) by Vik Muniz was sold for £34,850.

Music Videos Featuring Favelas 

From top left to bottom right in chronological order (Title, Country, Musician(s), Year):

1. Ratamahatta, Brazil/USA, [Fred Stuhr] (music by Sepultura), 1996

2. They Don't Care About Us, USA, [Spike Lee] (music by Michael Jackson), 1996

3. Beautiful, USA, [Chris Robinson] (music by Snoop Dogg; features Pharell), 2003

4. Don’t Lie, USA, [A&M Records] (music by Black Eyed Peas), 2005

5. Minha Alma (A Paz Que Eu Não Quero) / My Soul (The Peace I Do Not Want), Brazil, [Kátia Lund/Breno Silveira/Paulo Lins] (music by O Rappa), 2007

6. Say Hey (I Love You), USA, Michael Franti & Spearhead, 2009

7. Na Favela / In the Favela, USA/Brazil, [Don Blanquito/Rex Kudo/Idan “Proper” Kalai/DJ F2/Carlos Haynes] (music by Don Blanquito), 2011


Songs Featuring Favela

Real as It Gets, Jay Z (USA), 2009. 

"Uh, close your eyes you can smell

Hovs the audio equivalent of braille

That's why the feel me in the favelas in Brazil

And Waterhouse cause real recognise real"


Films Showing Favelas Released Between 1934 and 2012

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